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Endnotes

References
EDF, 1999. Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). “Scorecard: Chemical Profile for Acrylonitrile” (see webpage: http://www.scorecard.org/chemical-profiles).
New York: EDF.

Lewis, Sr., Richard J. (ed.). 1993. Hazardous Chemicals Desk Reference (third edition). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

MA TURA Data, 1998. Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act (MA TURA) Program, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MA DEP). 1998. “Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act Chemical Reporting Data.” Boston: MA DEP.

MA TURA, SAB, 1998. Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act (MA TURA) Program, Science Advisory Board. 1998. “Categorization of the Toxics Use Reduction List of Toxic and Hazardous Substances: Interim Report to the Administrative Council.” Boston: Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Program.

NJDOHSS, 1998. New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Service (NJDOHSS). “Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet: Acrylonitrile.” Trenton, New Jersey: NJDOHSS (also see the Department’s webpage: http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/rtkhsfs.htm).

SRI, 1995. Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Chemical Economics Handbook (updated annually). Palo Alto, California: SRI.

USEPA, OAQPS, 1998. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS). “Acrylonitrile.” Washington, D.C.: USEPA. See the OAQPS webpage: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/hlthef/acryloni.html.

Endnotes
1 Adiponitrile is also an intermediary. It is used to manufacture hexamethylenediamine (HMDA), which is used to manufacture nylon.
2 The major markets for ABS are automotive and appliance parts; pipes, conduit, and fittings; business machine housings; and telephones. The major markets for SAN — a clear polymer — are household goods (such as drinking cups), packaging products, appliance parts, and automobile instrument panels.
3 Acrylic fibers are used to manufacture textile products for the apparel, home furnishings, and industrial markets.
4 Acrylamide is also an intermediary, with its primary use as the monomer in polyacrylamide (PAM). The primary function of PAM is to facilitate the separation of solids from liquids. PAM markets include water treatment, minerals processing, and papermaking. The paper industry also uses PAM as a strengthener, retention aid, and drainage improver. Acrylamide is also an intermediary in the manufacture of N-methylolacrylamide (NMA), which is used in textile backcoatings, adhesives, non-wovens, and surface coatings.
5 Nitrile elastomers are used primarily in industrial applications where oil resistance and low temperature flexibility are valued: automotive uses are the dominant end use of nitrile elastomers.
6 In 1993, 30 million pounds of acrylonitrile were consumed in the U.S. for use as a packaging material, representing only 2 percent of consumption.
7 Massachusetts consumes less than one tenth of one percent of total U.S. consumption of acrylonitrile. For example in 1993, Massachusetts businesses consumed 542 thousand pounds of acrylonitrile, while total U.S. consumption was 1,584,000 thousand pounds.
8 The Massachusetts Monsanto facility, which is now called Solutia, stopped reporting acrylonitrile use in 1995.