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Endnotes

1. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Cadmium, 1999; Llewellyn, T.O. U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 9380: Cadmium (Materials Flow), 1994; Butterman, W.C. et al., Open-File Report 02-238, Mineral Commodity Profiles: Cadmium, 2002; National Toxicology Program, Substance Profiles: Cadmium (CAS No. 7440-43-9) and Cadmium Compounds; TOXNET Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), Cadmium, Elemental; EPA Chemical Sampling Information: Cadmium; Bertin, G. et al, Cadmium: cellular effects, modifications of biomolecules, modulation of DNA repair and genotoxic consequences (a review), Biochimie, 2006; International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre, International Chemical Safety Cards: Cadmium; The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH Publication No. 2005-149: NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Cadmium dust (as Cd); Cadmium fume (as Cd); American Conference of Industrial Hygienists, ACGIH, 2005 TLVs and BEIs, 2005; The Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) of the California Environmental Protection Agency, PROPOSITION 65 SAFE HARBOR LEVELS: No Significant Risk Levels for Carcinogens and Maximum Allowable Dose Levels for Chemicals Causing Reproductive Toxicity; Kellen, E., et al., Blood cadmium may be associated with bladder carcinogenesis: The Belgian case–control study on bladder cancer. Cancer Detection and Prevention, 2007; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Beryllium, Cadmium, Mercury and Exposures in the Glass Manufacturing Industry. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, vol. 58. 1993: Lyon, France; Wikipedia. Itai-itai disease.

2. Butterman, 2002; U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey, 2006 Minerals Yearbook: Cadmium and U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries 2007: Cadmium; Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act data. 2007; Toxics Use Reduction Institute, Summary of Policy Analysis, Higher Hazard Substance Designation Recommendation: Cadmium (CAS # 7440-43-9) and Cadmium Compounds.

3. Butterman, 2002; Llewellyn, 1994; Toxics Use Reduction Institute, Summary of Policy Analysis, Higher Hazard Substance Designation Recommendation: Cadmium (CAS # 7440-43-9) and Cadmium Compounds; Chromatics to Discontinue Production of Heavy Metal-based Colorants. The Wire Association International, 2006; Mulholland, B.M. Cadmium Free Colored Engineering Plastics for the Automotive Industry, in Annual Technical Conference, Society of Plastics Engineers, 1994; Wood, A., Cadmium-free Inorganic Pigments. Chemical Week, 2000; Jansen, M. et al., Inorganic Yellow-red Pigments without Toxic Metals. Nature, 2000; Endriss, H. et al., Bismuth Vanadate Pigments. Kunststoffe Plast Europe, 1996; Hatcher, H., et al., Providing Unique Solutions with a New Pigment Chemistry. Paint and Coatings Industry, 2004; Davis, The Product Side of Pollution Prevention: Evaluating the Potential for Safe Substitutes, 1994; Monaghan, D.P., et al., An Improved Method for the Deposition of Corrosion-resistant Aluminium Coatings for Aerospace Applications. Surface and Coatings Technology, 1993; Bielawski, M., Development of Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtered Al-Mo Coatings for Cadmium Replacement. Surface Coatings and Technology, 2004; Lambert, et al., Appropriate Battery Technology for a New, Rechargeable, Micro-solar Lantern. Journal of Power Sources, 2000; Otto, A. et al., Development of Fast Kinetics Metal Hydride Alloys and Battery Electrodes for High Power Applications. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 1999; Bossche, P.V.d., et al., SUBAT: An Assessment of Sustainable Battery Technology. Journal of Power Sources, 2006.

4. Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act data. 2007; Toxics Use Reduction Institute, Summary of Policy Analysis, Higher Hazard Substance Designation Recommendation: Cadmium (CAS # 7440-43-9) and Cadmium Compounds; List of TRI Chemicals; Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). OSHA, 1910, subpart Z, 1910.1027; ASTDR ToxFAQs for Cadmium, 1999; Massachusetts Division of Occupational Safety, M. “Right-to-Know” Law (MGL 111F), Workplace Regulation (454 CMR 21.00); Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection. Revised Air Guidelines; Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection. Standards and Guidelines for Contaminants in Massachusetts Drinking Waters, 2007, Massachusetts Hazardous Waste regulations, 310 CMR 30.125, Maximum Concentration of Contaminants for Toxicity Characteristic; California Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 (Proposition 65); European Community; Council Directive on the Approximation of the Laws, Regulations and Administrative Provisions of the Member States Relating to Restrictions on the Marketing and Use of Certain Dangerous Substances and Preparations (76/769/EEC); European Union. Regulation EC No 1907/2006, Annex XVII, 18 December 2006.