1 The data for this section were collected from the following sources: Environmental Defense Fund, 1999, Chemical Profile for Ethylene Oxide (New York: EDF; see webpage: http:/www.scorecard.org/chemicalprofiles/html/ethylene_oxide.html); Richard J. Lewis, Sr. (ed.), 1993, Hazardous Chemicals Desk Reference (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold); New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, 1994, Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet: Ethylene Oxide (Trenton, New Jersey; see webpage: http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/rtkhsfs.htm); Ted Schettler, Gina Solomon, Paul Burns, and Maria Valenti, 1996, Generations at Risk: How Environmental Toxins May Affect Reproductive Health in Massachusetts (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility and Massachusetts Public Interest Research Group); Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate (KemI), 1991, Risk Reduction of Chemicals: A Government Commission Report, Report No. 1/91 (Solna, Sweden: KemI); and U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality Planningand Standards, 1998, Ethylene Oxide (Washington, D.C.: U.S. EPA; see webpage: http://www.epa.gov/ttn.uatw/hlthef/ethylene.html); Shell Chemical et al, Ethylene Oxide User's Guide, second edition, August 1999, (see webpage: http://www.ethyleneoxide.com/); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Toxicology Program, 2000, 9th Report on Carcinogens.
2 The national chemical use data are from Stanford Research Institute (SRI) International, 1997, Chemical Economics Handbook, Ethylene Oxide (Palo Alto, California: SRI). The Massachusetts chemical use data are from the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MA DEP), 1998, Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act Chemical Reporting Data (Boston: MA DEP).
3 References for the alternatives section are as follows: Los Angeles Board of Public Works, 1995, Factsheet: Ethylene Oxide Sterilant Alternatives; Advanced Sterilization Products, 1996, The Future of Low-Temperature Sterilization Technology, (Newport Beach, CA: Communicore); The Titan Corporation, Electron Beam Technology, (see webpage: http://www.scan.titan.com); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Sterilization or Disinfection of Medical Devices: General Principles, (see webpage: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/hip/sterile/sterilgp.htm).
4 The data in this section are from the following sources: EDF, 1999; New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, 1996; and Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, 1991 (see endnote #1 for full citations).